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Homa u-Migdal Museum
Homa u-Migdal Museum
|Location National park Gan Hashlosha, Israel|
|City Kibbuz nir david|
|Address Kibbuz nir david|
|Open to visitors yes|
|Need appointment no|
|Handicap accessibility no|
|Geographical Coordinates 32.50659,35.44627|
Homa u-Migdal - “Tower and stockade” is the name given to the communities established during the incursions and incidents during the years 1936-1939, known by the Arabs as “The Arab Revolt”. The British government’s attempts to freeze immigration and settlement in Israel aroused the need to find new methods of coping. The leadership of the existing settlement chose the planned settlement method, based on security considerations and long term national needs.
The plan for the type of “Tower and stockade” communities was proposed by Shlomo Gur, a member of Kibbutz Tel Amal, and approved, with minimal alterations, by the Hagana.
During the course of the Tower and stockade campaign, 52 new Jewish settlements were established throughout the country. A Turkish Ottoman law, that was in effect during the Mandate period, stated that any illegal building may not be demolished if the roof has been completed.
The objective of these settlements was to seize control of land that had been officially purchased by the KKL-JNF, so to have as much Jewish-owned land as possible populated by Jews, particularly in remote areas, by establishing "facts on the ground." These settlements would eventually be transformed into fortified agricultural settlements, and served for security purposes (as defenses against Arab raiders) as well as creating continuous Jewish-populated regions, which would later help determine the borders of the Partition Plan.
All of the major settlement groups (mostly kibbutzim and moshavim) took part in the campaign, which consisted of assembling a guard tower with a fence around it. While many of these settlements were not approved by the Mandate, existing settlements were not dismantled according to the Turkish Ottoman law at the time. Therefore, the construction of the Tower and Stockade settlements had to be finished very quickly, usually in the course of a single night.
Shlomo Gur’s plan answered several major needs:
The establishment of a temporary settlement in one day The possibility, in the future, to convert the temporary settlement into a permanent one, while creating conditions that would enable a small group of defenders to withstand an attack until the arrival of reinforcements.
According to Gur’s plan, a wooden tower crowned by a searchlight for observation and signaling was constructed in the middle of the settlement, surrounded by a few huts. In average, the enclosed space formed a yard of 35 x 35 meters (1 dunam). The entire area was enclosed by a wall, 1.80m. in height, built of two wooden fences, between which was a gravel infill as protection from bullets. Within less than three years, 55 new communities were established - a leap from nothing to a period of intensive progress. “Tower and stockade” settlements were established throughout the country, from kibbutz Dan, in the North, to kibbutz Negba in the Negev (South), many of them in areas where there was formerly no Jewish Yishuv (community).
Adress: National park Gan Hashlosha D. N. Bikaat Bet-Shean 19150 phone: 04-6581017 Opening hours: Sunday - Thursday 10.00-14.00
List of Tower and stockade settlements (by order of establishment)
Kfar Hittim, 7 December 1936 Tel Amal (now Nir David), 10 December 1936 Sde Nahum, 5 January 1937 Sha'ar HaGolan, 31 January. 1937 Masada, 31 January. 1937 Ginosar, 25 February 1937 Beit Yosef, 9 April 1937 Mishmar HaShlosha, 13 April 1937 Tirat Tzvi, 30 June 1937 Bnei Brit (now Moledet), 4 July 1937 Ein HaShofet, 5 July 1937 Ein Gev, 6 July 1937 Maoz Haim, 6 July 1937 Kfar Menachem, 27 July 1937 Hafetz Haim, 15 August 1937 Tzur Moshe, 13 September 1937 Usha, 7 November 1937 Hanita, 21 March 1938 Shavei Tzion, 13 April 1938 Sde Warburg, 17 May 1938 Ramat Hadar, 26 May 1938 Alonim, 26 June 1938 Ma'ale HaHamisha, 17 July 1938 Tel Yitzhak, 25 July 1938 Beit Yehoshua, 17 August 1938 Ein HaMifratz, 25 August 1938 Ma'ayan Tzvi, 30 August 1938 Sharona, 16 November 1938 Geulim, 17 November 1938 Eilon, 24 November 1938 Neve Eitan, 25 November 1938 Kfar Ruppin, 25 November 1938 Kfar Masaryk, 29 November 1938 Mesilot, 22 December 1938 Dalia, 2 May 1939 Dafna, 3 May 1939 Dan, 4 May 1939 Sde Eliyahu, 8 May 1939 Mahanayim, 23 May 1939 Shadmot Dvora, 23 May 1939 Shorashim, 23 May 1939 Hazore'im, 23 May 1939 Tel Tzur, 23 May 1939 Kfar Glikson, 23 May 1939 Ma'apilim, 23 May 1939 Mishmar HaYam (now Afek), 28 May 1939 Hamadiyah, 23 June 1939 Kfar Netter, 26 June 1939 Negba, 12 July 1939 Gesher, 13 August 1939 Beit Oren, 1 October 1939 Amir, 29 October 1939 Kfar Szold, 13 November 1942